ABBOTT METHOD - For scoliosis of the spine; traction is applied to produce overcorrection, followed by casting.
ABDOMINAL MUSCLES - Important for support of the spine, these muscles are the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus.
ABDUCTION - Movement away from midline of body in frontal plane; applied to hip, shoulder, fingers, thumb, and foot.
ABRASION - Any superficial scraping of skin tissue or mucous membrane mechanically or through injury.
ABSCESS - Localized collection of pus in a cavity which may form in any tissue.
ACHONDROPLASTIC STENOSIS - Increased vertebral thickness, marked concavity of the vertebral body, and shortened pedicles.
ACOUSTIC NEURINOMAS - Benign tumor of the hearing nerve (eighth nerve). A progressively enlarging, benign tumor, usually within the internal auditory canal or hearing nerve.
ACROMEGALY - Disorder marked by progressive enlargement of the head, face, hands, feet, and thorax, due to the excessive secretion of growth hormone.
ACTION TREMOR - A type of tremor that occurs during voluntary movements, such as lifting a cup to one's mouth.
ACTIVA TREMOR CONTROL THERAPY - The therapy uses an implanted device to deliver mild electrical stimulation to block the brain signals that cause tremor. The therapy stimulates the target nuclei in the thalamus via an insulated wire lead with electrodes that are surgically implanted in the brain and connected to a pulse generator that is implanted near the collarbone. The stimulation level can be adjusted to get the most possible tremor control with minimal side effects.
ACUTE - Severe, for a short time.
ADENOCARCINOMA - Cancer arising from secretory cells, often in a gland. Breast and pancreatic cancers are usually adenocarcinomas.
ADENOMA - A benign growth formed of glandular tissue.
ADOLESCENT SCOLIOSIS - Lateral curvature of the spine occurring during adolescence.
ADULT SCOLIOSIS - Scoliosis occuring after skeletal maturity.
AEBI, ETTER, AND COSICA - Anterior approach to inferior C-2 to fractured dens with screws.
AEDs - Antiepileptic drugs.
AFFERENT NEURON - Transmitting impulses to the central nervous system.
AGNOSIA - Absence of the ability to recognize the form and nature of persons and things.
AGRAPHIA - Loss of the power of writing due either to muscular incoordination or to an inability to phrase thought.
ALAR DYSGENESIS - Abnormality in development of the sacroiliac joint.
ALBEE - Fusion of the spine using grafts across the spinous processes in spondylolisthesis.
ALLOGRAFT BONE - Sterile bone derived from another human which is used for grafting procedures.
AMAUROSIS - Loss of vision without discoverable lesion in the eye structures or optic nerve. Amaurosis fugax - temporary blindness occurring in short periods.
AMENORRHEA - Absence of the menses due to causes other than pregnancy or advancing age.
AMNESIA - Loss of memory caused by brain damage or by severe emotional trauma.
ANALGESIA - Loss of sensibility to pain, loss of response to a painful stimulus.
ANAPLASIA - In the case of a body cell, a reversion to a more primitive condition. A term used to denote the alteration in cell character which constitutes malignancy.
ANASTOMOSIS - A communication, direct or indirect: A joining together. In the nervous system a jointing of nerves or blood vessels.
ANESTHESIOLOGIST - Physician who administers pain-killing medications during surgery.
ANENCEPHALY - Absence of the greater part of the brain, often with skull deformity.
ANESTHESIA - Loss of sensation of a body part; or of the body when induced by the administration of a drug.
ANESTHESIOLOGIST - Physician who administers pain-killing medications during surgery.
ANEURYSM - Dilation of an artery, formed by a circumscribed enlargement of its wall. Saccular (berry) aneurysm - >sac-like bulging on one side of an artery usually arising at an arterial branching.
ANGIOGRAM - A study which shows the blood vessels leading to and in the brain by injecting a dye or contrast substance through a catheter placed in the artery in the leg.
ANGIOMA - A tumor whose cells tend to form blood vessels (hemangioma) or lymph vessels (lymphangioma).
ANGIOGRAPHY - Radiography of blood vessels using the injection of material opaque to x-rays to give better definition to the vessels.
ANISOSPONDYLY - Different abnormal shapes of the vertebral bodies.
ANKYLOSING SPINAL HYPEROSTOSIS - Arthritic disorder in which bridgingosteophytes located anteriorly and posteriorly on the vertebral body bind two or more vertebrae together; Forestier disease.
ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS - stiffening or fixation of the vertebra; an inflammatory joint disease mainly affecting the spine hips, and pelvis.
ANNULUS FIBROSUS - The outer, fibrous, ring-like portion of an intervertebral disc.
ANOREXIA - Loss of appetite; a condition marked by loss of appetite leading to weight loss.
ANOSMIC - Without the sense of smell.
ANOXIA - Total lack of oxygen supply.
ANTERIOR - Front of the body or situated nearer the front of the body.
ANTERIOR APPROACH - When used to approach the cervical, cervicodorsal, dorsal, and lumbar spines, it is designed to provide sufficient surface for multiple segmental spinal fusions; Hodgson, Roaf. For specific cervical spinal explorations and fusions; Southwick and Robinson, Bailey and Badgley, Whitesides and kelly, Henry (to vertebral artery).
ANTERIOR CERVICAL DISCECTOMY - an operation where the cervical spine is reached through a small incision in the front of your neck. After the soft tissues of the neck are separated, the intervertebral disc and bone spurs are removed.
ANTERIOR CERVICAL DISCECTOMY WITH FUSION - an operation performed on the upper spine to relieve pressure on one or more nerve roots, or on the spinal cord. The term is derived from the words anterior (front), cervical (neck), and fusion (joining the vertebrae with a bone graft).
ANTERIOR DISPLACEMENT - Forward movement of the superior segment on the inferior one.
ANTERIOR LUMBAR INTERBODY FUSION (ALIF) - operation where the lumbar spine is approached through an incision in the abdomen. A portion of the affected disc space is removed from the spine and replaced with an implant.
ANTERIOR SPINAL FUSION - Approaching the spine from the front, the intervertable disc and/or vertebral body is removed and bone graft is inserted. Some variations of this procedure include the Smith-Robinson, Cloward and dowel procedures.
ANTERIOR SPURRING - Ligament turning to bone on anterior side of vertebral body.
ANTEROLATERAL - Situated or occurring in front of and to the side.
ANEROLATERAL APPROACH - An approach to the dorsal spine by rib resection to explore the spine anteriorly and in some cases to do spinal fusions and decompressions spinal cord.
ANTI-COAGULANT - A medication that prevents coagulation of the blood.
ANTIDIURETIC - An agent which reduces the output of urine. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is formed in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. Its secretion reduces urine output.
AO FIXATEUR INTERNE - A posteriorly placed spinal fixation device.
APHASIA - Difficulty with, or loss of use of language, in any of several ways including reading, writing or speaking. Failure of understanding of the written, printed or spoken word not related to intelligence but to specific lesions in the brain.
APNEA - Cessation of respiration; inability to get one's breath.
APOPLEXY - A sudden event. Often used as equivalent to stroke.
ARACHNOID - Middle layer of membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
ARACHNOIDITIS - Inflammation of the arachnoid membrane, most commonly seen within the spinal cord around the spinal cord and cauda equina.
AREA - (Cortical) - A part of the brain having a special function as in
Motor a. - The cortical portion of the brain controlling movement.
Sensory a. - The cortical portion, controlling sensation.
ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION - A condition in which there is displacement of the medulla and cerebellum into the opening in the basilar part of the occipital bone. It is one of the causes of hydrocephalus and is usually accompanied by spina bifida and menigomyelocele.
ARTERIOGRAPHY - See angiography.
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS - Thickening and calcification of the arterial wall with loss of elasticity and contractility.
ARTERIOVENOUS - Relating to both arteries and veins.
ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION - Collection of blood vessels with one or several abnormal communications between arteries and veins which may cause hemorrhage or seizures.
ARTERY of ADAMKIEWICZ - An important source of blood supply to the lower portion of the spine, usually occurring at T-9 to T-11 level; however, not the only blood supply to the cord at that level.
ARTHRALGIA - Joint pain.
ARTHRITIS - Inflammation of a joint usually characterized by swelling, pain and restriction of motion.
ARTHRODESIS - The fusion of bones across a joint space, thereby limiting or eliminating movement. It may occur spontaneously or as a result of a surgical procedure, such as fusion of the spine.
ARTHROPATHY - Any disease or disorder involving a joint.
ARTHROPLASTY - The surgical remodeling of a diseased or damaged joint.
ARTHROSCOPE - An instrument inserted into it's joint cavity to view the interior of a joint and correct certain abnormalities. An arthroscope is an endoscope for use in a joint.
ARTHROSCOPY - The procedure of visualizing the inside of a joint by means of an arthroscope.
ARTICULAR - Pertaining to a joint.
ASTROCYTE - Cell which supports the nerve cells (neurons) of the brain and spinal cord.
ASTROCYTOMA - Tumor within the substance of the brain or spinal cord made up of astrocytes - often classified from Grade I (slow-growing) to Grade III (rapid-growing).
ATAXIA - A loss of muscular coordination, abnormal clumsiness.
ATHETOSIS - A condition in which there is a succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of the fingers and hands, and sometimes of the toes and feet.
ATLANTO-AXIAL - Pertaining to the atlas and the axis; denoting the joint between the first two cervical vertebrae.
ATLANTO-EPISTRPHIC - See atlanto-axial.
ATLANTO-OCCIPITAL - Relating to the atlas and the occipital bone.
ATLANTO-ODONTOID - Relating to the atlas and the dens of the axis.
ATLAS - First cervical vertebrae, articulating with the occipital bone and rotating around the dens of the axis.
ATONIC SEIZURE - Seizures that are characterized by a sudden loss of muscle tone, causing the individual to instantly drop to the floor, commonly known as "drop attacks."
ATROPHY - A wasting of the tissues of a body part.
AURA - Warning sign that people with epilepsy often experience prior to the onset of a seizure, which may consist of a strange taste, bad feeling, or tingling sensation.
AUTOGENOUS BONE - Bone originating from the same individual; i.e., an individual's own bone.
AUTOGRAFT BONE - Bone transplanted from one part to another part of the body in the same individual.
AUTOLOGUS - a graft in which the donor and recipient area are in the same individual.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM - Involuntary nervous system, also termed the vegetative nervous system. A system of nerve cells whose activities are beyond voluntary control.
AVASCULAR - Non-vascular, not provided with blood vessels.
AVM (ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION) - Deformity, abnormal shape or structure relating to veins and arteries.
AXIS - The vertebral column. The second cervical vertebra, about which the first cervical vertebra rotates, allowing head movement.
AXON - The part of a nerve cell that usually sends signals to other nerves or structures.


BAASTRUP d. (kissing spine) - False joint formed by wide posterior spinous processes of the lumbar spine. This may become a source of pain.
BACKBONE - See Spine.
BACK PAIN - nonspecific term used to describe pain below the cervical spine
BACTERICIDAL - Causing the death of bacteria.
BACTERIOSTATIC - Inhibiting or retarding the growth of bacteria.
BANKS-DERVIN ROD - For scoliosis fixation; a multiple level rod that is fixed with oblique spinous process to contralateral lamina screws.
BELL'S PALSY - Paralysis of facial muscles (usually one side) due to facial nerve dysfunction of unknown cause.
BENIGN - Not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body.
BIOABSORBABLE POLYMER - A substance, such as some plastics, which the human body can break down and absorb.
BIOCOMPATIBILITY - A characteristic of some materials that when they are inserted into the body do not produce a significant rejection or immune response.
BIODEGRADATION - The breakdown of organic materials into simple chemicals commonly found in the body.
BIOPSY - Removal of a small portion of tissue, usually for the purpose of making a diagnosis.
BLOOD-BRAIN-BARRIER - The barrier which exists between the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid which prevents the passage of various substances from the bloodstream to the brain.
BMP-LIKE PRODUCTS - proteins that enhance mineralization, which can increase bone formation.
BOHMAN - Posterior triple spinous process wiring technique in the cervical spine to secure bone graft.
BONE - The hard tissue that provides structural support to the body. It is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen. Individual bones may be classed as long, short, or flat.
BONE DERIVATIVE - One of the substances extracted from bone, such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMP).
BONE GRAFT - Bone which is harvested from one location in an individual and placed in another individual (allograft bone) or in a different location in the same individual (autogenous bone).
BONE HARVESTING - the removal of bone for transplantation to another site. The most common sources are the iliac crests because these bones contain a large amount of cancellous bone, the inner spongy part, which is useful for getting grafts to "take."
BONE MARROW - The tissue contained within the internal cavities of the bones. A major function of this tissue is to produce red blood cells.
BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-2 (BMP-2) - one of a family of BMPs- naturally occurring chemicals in the body- that play a major role in bone growth. BMP-like products: proteins that enhance mineralization, which can increase bone formation.
BONE PLATE - Usually a relatively thin metal device which is affixed to bone via screws. Bone plates are used to immobilize bones or bone fragments such that healing can occur.
BONE SCREW - A threaded metal device which is inserted into bone. The functions of bone screws are to immobilize bones or bone fragments or to affix other medical devices, such as metal bone plates, to bones.
BOSWORTH - A fusion using an H-shaped bone graft in spondylolisthesis.
BOVINE BONE EXTRACT - a BMP derived from the bones of bovines.
BRACHIAL - Relating to the Arm.
BRADFORD - For kyphoscoliosis deformity; staged anterior and posterior approach for interbody fusion and correction of deformity.
BRADYCARDIA - Slowness of the heart rate.
BRADYKINESIA - Slowness in movement.
BRATTSTROM - Use of acrylic cement for C-1 to C-2 fusion.
BROOKS and JENKINS - Loops of wire around lamina of C-1 and C-2 to hold bone graft between lamina.
BROWN-SEQUARD'S SYNDROME - Loss of sensation of touch, position sense, and movement on the side of a spinal cord lesion, with loss of pain sensation on the other side. Caused by a lesion limited to one side of spinal cord.
BURR - An electrical drilling tool for enlarging atrephine (circular) hole in the cranium
CADAVER - A term generally applied to a dead human body preserved for anatomical study.


CADAVERIC - a tissue or organ transplanted from a cadaver (deceased donor)
CALLAHAN - Individual wire fixation of a strut bone graft to involved facets.
CALLOSUM - The great commisure of the brain between the cerebral hemispheres.
CAMPTOCORMIA - Severe forward flexion of upper torso, usually an excessive psychologic reaction to back pain.
CANCELLOUS BONE - The spongy or honeycomb structure of some bone tissue typically found at the ends of long bones.
CAPNER - Draining of thoracic spinal abscess through an anterolateral approach.
CARCINOMA - Cancer, a malignant growth of epithelial or gland cells.
CAROTID ARTERY - Large artery on either side of the neck which supplies blood to most of the cerebral hemisphere. Main artery to the head that divides into external and internal carotid arteries.
CAROTID SINUS - Slight dilatation on the common carotid artery at its bifurcation containing nerve cells sensitive to blood pressure. Stimulation can cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation and a fall in blood pressure.
CAROTID TUBERCLE - Prominence of the transverse process of C-6 felt on the lateral side of the neck.
CARPAL TUNNEL - Space under a ligament in wrist through which the median nerve enters the palm of the hand.
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME - A condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel, characterized especially by discomfort and disturbances of sensation in the hand.
CARRIER - a material or device used to deliver a therapy to a site in or on the body.
CARTILAGE - The hard, thin layer of white glossy tissue that covers the end of bone at a joint. This tissue allows motion to take place with a minimum amount of friction. Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. It is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers, abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycan, and elastin fibers. Cartilage is classified in three types, elastic cartilage, hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, which differ in the relative amounts of these three main components.
Cartilage is found in many areas in the body including the articular surface of the bones, the ri cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs. Its mechanical properties are intermediate between bone and dense connective tissue like tendon.
Unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not contain blood vessels. The chondrocytes are fed by diffusion, helped by the pumping action generated by compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage. Thus, compared to other connective tissues, cartilage grows and repairs more slowly.? ? ?
CARTILAGE SPACE NARROWING - Narrowing of any cartilage space; also called disc space narrowing.
CATHETER - A small tube used to inject a dye to see the blood vessels, similar to that used for looking at vessels in the heart.
CAUDA EQUINA - The bundle of spinal nerve roots arising from the end of the spinal cord and filling the lower part of the spinal canal(from approximately the thoraco-lumbar junction down).
CAUDA EQUINA SYNDROME - Sufficient pressure on the nerves in the low back to produce multiple nerve root irritation and commonly loss of bowel and bladder control.
CAUDATE NUCLEUS - Part of the basal ganglia which are brain cells that lie deep in the brain.
CADAVERIC - a tissue or organ transplanted from a cadaver (deceased donor).
CARRIER - a material or device used to deliver a therapy to a site in or on the body.
CENTRAL CORD SYNDROME - Most common of the incomplete traumatic spinal cord syndromes characterized by motor impairment that is proportionately greater in the upper limbs than in the lower, with bladder dysfunction and a variable degree of sensory loss below the level of the cord lesion.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM - Part of the nervous system which consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
CENTRUM - The body of a vertebra.
CEREBELLUM - The lower part of the brain which is beneath the posterior portion of the cerebrum and regulates unconscious coordination of movement.
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF) - Water-like fluid produced in the brain that circulates around and protects the brain and spinal cord. Shrinking or expanding of the cranial contents is usually quickly balanced by increase or decrease of this fluid.
CEREBRAL - Relating to the brain or intellect.
CEREBRALl CORTEX - Surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of higher nervous activity; called also pallium.
CEREBRAL PALSY - Disability resulting from damage to the brain before or during birth and outwardly manifested by muscular incoordination and speech disturbances.
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID - Water-like fluid produced in the brain that circulates and protects the brain and spinal cord, known as CSF. Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain. Essentially, the brain "floats" in it.
More specifically the CSF occupies the space between the arachnoid mater (the middle layer of the brain cover, meninges) and the pia mater (the layer of the meninges closest to the brain). Moreover it constitutes the content of all intra-cerebral (inside the brain, cerebrum) ventricles, cisterns and sulci (singular sulcus), as well as the central canal of the spinal cord
It is an approximately isotonic solution and acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex, providing also a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull.
CEREBRUM - The principal portion of the brain, which occupies the major portion of the interior of the skull and controls conscious movement, sensation and thought.
CERVICAL - Of or relating to the neck.
CERVICAL PLEXUS - Plexus of nerves that supply the neck muscles with branches named by muscles supplied, a portion which is called the ansa cervicalis.
CERVICAL RIB - Riblike structure in the seventh cervical vertebra that may cause nerve root irritation.
CERVICAL SPINAL FUSION - Spinal fusion involving the seven cervical segments. This may include the base of the skull, the occiput, and the first thoracic spine.
CHEMONUCLEOLYSIS - A treatment of an intervertebral disc that consists of an injection of chymopapain, a drug that dissolves part of the disc.
CHIASM (OPTIC) - Crossing of visual fibers as they head toward the opposite side of the brain. For each optic nerve most of the visual fibers cross to the opposite side, some run directly backward on each side without crossing.
CHOREA - A disorder, usually of childhood, characterized by irregular, spasmodic involuntary movements of the limbs or facial muscles.
CHOROID PLEXUS - A vascular structure in the ventricles of the brain which produces cerebrospinal fluid.
CINGULATE GYRUS - A long, curved convolution of the medial surface of the cortical hemisphere.
CINGULOTOMY - Electronic destruction of the anterior cingulate gyrus and callosum.
CLINICAL STUDIES - A process of strictly controlled evaluations involving patients. Some of these studies are required by the FDA prior to general release of a device or compound for use in humans.
COAGULATION - The process of clotting.
COBALT-CHROME - A term that is used in referring to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy, a mixture of metals used in many surgical implants.
COCCYALGIA - Pain in the coccyx region5 coccygodynia, coccyodynia, coccydynia.
COCCYGEAL - Remaining three or four, somewhat fixed, fused segments at the end of the spine (tailbone) that articulate with sacrum above.
COCCYGECTOMY - Excision of the coccyx (tailbone).
COCCYGOTOMY - Incision into the coccyx (tailbone).
COCCYX - The small bone at the end of the spinal column in man, formed by the fusion of four rudimentary vertebrae. The three, and sometimes four, segments of bone just below the sacrum; referred to as the tailbone.
COLLAGEN - A fibrous protein which is a major constituent of connective tissue. Such as skin, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and bones.
COLLAR - A band, usually denoting one encircling the neck.
COMA - A state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused.
COMBINED STENOSIS - For congenital or developmental reasons, the midsagittal diameter is decreased.
COMMINUTED FRACTURE - A fracture in which a bone is broken into more than two pieces. Often internal or external fixation devices are used to maintain proper alignment of the fragments.
COMMISSURAL MYELORRHAPY - A longitudinal division of the spinal cord to sever crossing fibers.
COMPENSATORY CURVE - A curve located above or below a rigid structural curve to maintain normal overall body alignment.
COMPRESSION - A squeezing together; the exertion of pressure on a body in such a way as to tend to increase its density; the decrease in a dimension of a body under the action of two external forces directed toward one another in the same straight line.
COMPRESSION of NERVE ROOT - Mechanical process resulting from a tumor, fracture, or herniated disc; the resulting irritation is called radiculitis if there is actual inflammation around the nerve. Pain from this type of disorder is called radicular pain.
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) SCAN - A diagnostic imaging technique in which a computer reads x-rays to create a three-dimensional map of soft tissue or bone.
CONCUSSION - A disruption, usually temporary, of neurological function resulting from a blow or violent shaking.
CONGENITAL SCOLIOSIS - Scoliosis due to bony abnormalities present at birth involving either failure of formation of a vertebra or separation of adjacent vertebrae.
CONSTITUTIONAL STENOSIS - Normal-statured individuals with congenital variance in vertebral structure leading to a narrow canal.
CONTRACT - To shorten; to become reduced in size; in the case of muscle, either to shorten or to undergo an increase in tension.
CONTRAST MEDIUM - Any material (usually opaque to x-rays) employed to delineate or define a structure during a radiologic procedure.
CONTUSION - A bruise; an area in which blood that has leaked out of blood vessels is mixed with brain tissue.
CORDOTOMY - Transverse incision into the spinal cord.
CORONAL SUTURE - The line of junction of the frontal bones and the parietal bones of the skull.
CORPECTOMY - Excision of vertebral body usually combined with interpostion of prosthesis or bone graft.
CORPUS CALLOSUM - The greatest commissure of the brain between the cerebral hemispheres.
CORTEX - The external layer of gray matter covering the hemispheres of the cerebrum and cerebellum.
CORTICAL - Pertaining to the cortex.
CORTICAL BONE - The dense bone that forms the outer surface of bone.
COSTO - Combining form denoting relation to ribs.
COSTOCHONDRAL JUNCTION - junction of the rib into cartilage in the anterior chest. NOTE: Most of the ribs have attachment to the cartilage rather than a direct junction with the breast bone.
COSTOVERTEBRAL ANGLE - Juncture of tissue inferior and lateral to the twelfth rib and vertebral body.
COSTOVERTEBRAL JOINT - Junction of the rib with the thoracic spine.
COTREL-DUBOUSSET - Posterior fixation device for spinal deformity, fracture, tumor, and degenerative conditions.
CRAMP - A painful muscle spasm caused by prolonged tetanic contraction.
CRANIUM - The part of the skull that holds the brain.
CRANIECTOMY - Opening of skull and removal of a portion of it.
CRANIOPHARYNGIOMA - Congenital tumor arising from the embryonic duct between the brain and pharynx.
CRANIOPLASTY - The operative repair of a defect of the skull.
CRANIOSTENOSIS - Premature closure of cranial sutures, limiting or distorting the growth of the skull.
CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS - Premature closure of cranial sutures, limiting or distorting the growth of the skull.
CRANIOTOMY - Opening of the skull, usually by creating a flap of bone.
CRANKSHAFT PHENOMENON - Progressions of a spinal curve due to continued growth of the unfused anterior aspect of the spine following a posterior spine fusion for scoliosis in children.
CRICOID RING - Cartilage ring above the trachea and below the thyroid cartilage, the first cricoid ring is at the level of C-6.
CSF - Cerebrospinal Fluid.
CSF SHUNT - A bypass or diversion of accumulations of cerebrospinal fluid to an absorbing or excreting system.
CT SCAN - (computed tomography scan): A diagnostic imaging technique in which a computer reads x-rays to create a three-dimensional map of soft tissue or bone.
CYTOLOGY - Study of cells.


DE ANDRADE and MACNAB - Anterior approach for cervical occipital fusion.
DECOMPRESSION - In relation to the spine this procedure is carried out to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
DECOMPRESSIVE LAMINECTOMY - A decompression done by removing the lamina and spinous process.
DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION - A tremor control therapy for patients with Parkinson's Disease or essential tremors, who do not respond effectively to medications. It is a surgical reversible procedure that involves implanting a device to deliver mild electrical stimulation to block the brain signals that tremor.
DEGENERATIVE - The lesion results from intersegmental instability of long duration.
DEGENERATIVE DISC DISEASE - Gradual or rapid deterioration of the chemical composition and physical properties of the disc space.
DEGENERATIVE STENOSIS - Gradual hypertrophy of the vertebral body margin, facet joints, and ligamentum flavum leading to stenosis.
DE-MINERALIZED BONE - Bone tissue which has been depleted of its minerals; e.g., calcium and phosphorous.
DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX (DMB) - is a source of BMP and is derived from pulverized bone specimens that are demineralized with an acid solution. It is used as a bone grafting material, but DMB has produced disappointing results in clinical studies, probably due to low concentrations of BMP that can also vary from batch to batch.
DENDRITE - A nerve cell process that transmits impulses toward the cell body.
DEPRESSED SKULL FRACTURE - A break in the bones of the head in which some bone is pushed inward, possibly pushing on or cutting into the brain.
DERMATOME - Refers to the distribution of sensory nerves near the skin that are responsible for pain, tingling, and other sensations (or lack of).
DIABETES INSIPIDUS - Excretion of large amounts of urine of low specific gravity. The inability to concentrate urine.
DIAPHRAGM - The muscle between the abdomen and thorax; main muscle of normal breathing.
DIASTEMATOMYELIA - Congenital defect associated with spina bifida in which the spinal cord is split in half by bony spicules or fibrous bands, each half being surrounded by a dural sac.
DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY - Damage to the axons of many nerve cells that lie in different parts of the brain.
DIFFUSE BRAIN INJURY - Damage to the brain that can affect many parts of the brain, often in a subtle fashion; examples include diffuse axonal injury and inadequate blood flow.
DIPHENYLHYDANTOIN - Dilantin; a medication used to control seizures.
DIPLOPIA - Double vision, due usually to weakness or paralysis of one or more of the extra-ocular muscles.
DISC - The intervertebral disc - cartilaginous cushion found between the vertebrae of the spinal column. It may bulge beyond the vertebral body and compress the nearby nerve root, causing pain. The terms "slipped disc", "ruptured disc" and "herniated disc" are often used interchangeably even though there are subtle differences.
DISC DEGENERATION - The loss of the structural and functional integrity of the disc.
DISCECTOMY - Surgical removal of part or all of an intervertebral disc material placing pressure on neural elements.
DISCITIS - Nonbacterial inflammation of an intervertebral disc or disc space.
DISC SPACE INFECTION - Infection in the space normally occupied by an intervertebral disc.
DISKOGRAM - The graphic record, usually radiographic, of diskography.
DISKOGRAPHY - Radiographic demonstration of intervertebral disc by injection of contrast media into the nucleus of the pulposus.
DISLOCATION - Displacement of an organ or any part; specifically disturbance or disarrangement of the normal relation of the bones entering the formation of a joint.
DISTAL - Situated away from the center of the body.
DOME - The round balloon like portion of the aneurysm which usually arises from the artery from a smaller portion called the neck of the aneurysm.
DOPPLER - A non-invasive study which uses sound waves to show the flow in a blood vessel and can be used to determine the degree of narrowing (percent stenosis) of the vessel. A wand is placed on the skin over the vessel to be imaged. This study has no risks and is not painful.
DORSAL COLUMN - The main, normal sensory tract to the brain.
DORSAL LATERAL COLUMN - The main tract of position and tone to the brain.
DORSOLATERAL - An approach to the dorsal spine by costotransversectomy, usually done for fractures and other affections of the spinal cord.
DOUBLE CURVE - Two lateral curves in a single spine; double major curve is two lateral curves of equal magnitude, and double thoracic curve is two thoracic curves.
DUNN - For myelomeningocele spinal deformity; use of contouring L-rod for posterior stabilization.
DURA - Dura mater.
DURAL - Pertaining to the dura.
DURA MATER - A tough fibrous membrane which covers the brain and spinal cord, but is separated from them by a small space.
DWYER - Anteriorly placed screws and band device for correction of spinal deformities.
DWYER-HARTSILL - For failed lumbar degenerative disc disease; pedicle screws wired to a rectangular frame along with posterolateral fusion.
DYSESTHESIA - A condition in which a disagreeable sensation is produced by ordinary touch, temperature or movement.
DYSPHASIA - Difficulty in the use of language due to a brain lesion without mental impairment.
DYSPLASTIC - Congenital abnormalities of the arch of the sacrum or the arch of L-5 that permit the slipping to occur.
DYSRAPHISM - Any failure of closure of the primary neural tube. This general category would include the disorder myelomeningocele.
DYSTONIA MUSCULORM DEFORMANS - An affliction occurring especially in children, marked by muscular contractions producing distortions of the spin and hips.


EDEMA - An excessive accumulation of fluid generally in extracellular.
EDWARDS - A posterior rod and sleeve device used in stabilization of traumatic spinal conditions.
EGGSHELL - Excavation of vertebral body for correction of deformity that is combined with spinal fusion.
ELECTROENCEPHALOPGRAHY (EEG) - The study of the electrical currents set up by brain actions; the record made is called an electroencephalogram.
ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (EMG) - A method of recording the electrical currents generated in a muscle during its contraction.
ENCEPHALOCELE - Protrusion of the brain through a cranial fissure.
ENDARTERECTOMY - Removal of fatty or cholesterol plaques and calcified deposits from the internal wall of an artery.
ENDOCRINE GLAND - A gland which furnishes an internal secretion, usually having an effect on another organ.
ENDOCRINOPATHY - Any disease due to abnormality of quantity or quality in one or more of the internal glandular secretions.
ENDOGENOUS - Arising within or derived from the body.
ENDOSCOPE - A medical device for viewing internal portions of the body. It is usually comprised of fiber optic tubes and video display instruments.
ENDOSCOPY - Inspection of internal body structures or cavities using an endoscope.
EPENDYMA - The membrane lining the cerebral ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord.
EPENDYMOMA - A growth in the brain or spinal cord arising from ependymal tissue. Tumor of the spinal cord.
EPIDURAL - Immediately outside the dura mater. Same as extradural.
EPIDURAL HEMATOMA - A blood clot between the dura mater and the inside of the skull.
EPILEPSY - Disorder characterized by abnormal electrical discharges in the brain, causing abnormal sensation, movement or level of consciousness.
ESOPHAGUS - Portion of the gut between the mouth and in the anterior neck.
EXCISION - Removal by cutting away material.
EXTRADURAL - On the outer side of the dura mater.
EXOGENOUS - Originating outside of the body.
EXTENSION - The act of bringing the distal portion of a joint in continuity (though only parallel) with the long axis of the proximal portion.
EXTRUSION - Displaced material reaches the spinal canal through fibers of the annulus, but remains connected to the central dis material.


FACET - a flat, platelike surface that acts as part of a joint; as seen in the vertebrae of the spine and in the subtalar joint of the ankle. Each vertebra has two superior and two inferior facets.
Facet Arthropathy - a degenerative disease affecting the facet joint.
FACECTOMY - Excision of an articular facet of a vertebra.
FACET TROPISM - Asymmetrical orientation of the facets comparing right to left side.
FAILURE of SEGMENTATION - Failure of a portion or all of two or more adjoining vertebrae to separate into normal units.
FALX (CEREBRI) - An extension of dura between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
FATIGUE - That state, following a period of mental or bodily activity; characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompained by a feeling of weariness, sleepiness, or irritability.
FATIGUE FRACTURE - A fracture that occurs in bone or in other materials. Including metal, as a result of repeated stress as opposed to a single injury.
FENESTRATION (of cyst) - Surgical creation of window-like opening.
FIBROSIS - The replacement of normal tissue with scar tissue.
FIBROMYOSITIS - Chronic inflammation of a muscle with an overgrowth, or hyperplasia, of the connective tissue.
FISSURE - A groove or natural division, deep furrow in the brain.
FLATTENING of NORMAL LUMBAR CURVE - Condition in which the hollow of the back becomes shallow or even stright.
FLEXION - The act of flexing or bending; bending of a joint so as to approximate the parts it connects.
FONTANELLE - Normal openings in he skull of infants; the largest of these is the anterior fontanel or "soft spot" in the middle of the head.
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) - The Federal government agency that has regulatory authority over the manufacture, distribution, and labeling of drugs, medical devices, and foods.
FONTANELLES - "Soft spots" of the infant's head, normal unossified areas in the infant skull.
FORAMEN - A natural opening or passage in bone. An opening allowing for the egress of spinal nerve roots from between two vertebrae.
FORAMINOTOMY - Surgical opening or enlargement of the bony opening traversed by a nerve root as it leaves the spinal canal. A procedure carried out alone or in conjunction with disc surgery.
FRACTURE - A disruption of the normal continuity of bone.
FRACTURE-DISLOCATION - Fracture of a bone that is also dislocated from its normal position in a joint.
FUNCTIONAL SCOLIOSIS - Any scoliosis that is caused by leg length or other functional disorder and not by a primary curvature of the spine.
FUNCTIONAL STEREOTACTIC NEUROSURGERY - Surgery intended to improve the function of the central nervous system. A stereotactic head frame is used along with imaging techniques to map the brain and localize the surgical target.
FUSIFORM ANEURYSM - A sausage-like enlargement of the vessel
FUSION - Union or healing of bone (see Arthrodesis). Spinal fusion, also known as spondylodesis or spondylosyndesis, is a surgical technique used to combine two or more vertebrae. Supplementary bone tissue (either autograft or allograft) is used in conjunction with the body's natural osteoblastic processes. This procedure is used primarily to eliminate the pain caused by abnormal motion of the vertebrae by immobilizing the vertebrae themselves.


GALACTORRHEA - The discharge of milk from the breasts.
GALLIE - Wire around lamina of C-1 and spinous process of C-2.
GAMMA KNIFE - Equipment that precisely delivers a concentrated dose of radiation to a predetermined target using gamma rays.
GASSERION GANGLION - Mass of nervous tissue lying on the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve.
GENERALIZED SEIZURES - Seizures involving widespread areas on both sides of the brain at the time of onset. The generalized nature of these seizures accounts for their dramatic manifestations, which include loss of consciousness or awareness and convulsions. About 39% epileptics suffer primarily from generalized seizures.
GETTY - For decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis; excision of lamina and portion of facet.
GILL - Removal of the posterior spinal arch in spondylolisthesis.
GILL, MANNING, and WHITE - A procedure sometimes combined with posterolateral spinal fusion.
GLASGOW COMA SCALE - The most widely used system of classifying the severity of head injuries or other neurologic diseases.
GLASGOW OUTCOME SCALE - A widely used system of classifying outcome after head injury or other neurologic diseases.
GLENOID - Resembling a socket; denoting the articular depression of the scapula entering the formation of the shoulder joint.
GLENOHUMERAL - Relating to the glenoid cavity and the humerus.
GLIA (Also termed neuroglia) - The major support cells of the brain. These cells are involved in the nutrition and maintenance of the nerve cells.
GLIOBLASTOMA - A general term for malignant forms of astrocytoma.
GLIOMA - A tumor formed by glial cells.
GLOBUS PALLIDUS - part of the basal ganglia which are brain cells that lie deep in the brain.
GOLDSTEIN - For scoliosis deformity graft incorporating posterior elements, including facet joints and ribs.
GRAFT - any free (unattached) tissue or organ for transplantation.
GRAY MATTER - The nerve cell bodies to muscle and sensory outflow and input, respectively.
GRISEL SYNDROME - Subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint from inflammatory ligamentous laxity due to infection. Can result in neurologic complications.


HALIFAX - Clamp across lamina of C-1 and C-2.
HARRINGTON ROD - An instrumentation and fusion using a straight, stiff rod for distraction or compression; associated with a posterior spinal fusion in the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine for scoliosis or trauma.
HEADACHE - Pain in various parts of the head, not confined to the area of distribution of any nerve.
HEAT - A high temperature, the sensation produced by proximity to fire or an incandescent object, as opposed to cold.
HEMANGIOMA - A benign tumor consisting of a mass of blood vessels.
HEMATOMYELIA - Effusion of blood (hemorrhage) into the substance of the spinal cord.
HEMATORRHACHIS - Spinal apoplexy; hemorrhage into vertebral canal.
HEMISPHERECTOMY - Excision of one cerebral hemisphere undertaken for malignant tumors, intractable epilepsy usually associate with infantile hemiplegia due to birth injury and other cerebral conditions.
HEMATOMA - A blood clot.
HEMIANOPIA - Loss of vision of one-half of the visual field.
HEMIATROPHY - Atrophy of half of an organ or half of the body.
HEMILAMINECTOMY - The excision of only one side of the lamina (right or left) relative to other spinous process.
HEMIPLEGIA - Paralysis of one side of the body.
HEMORRHAGE - Bleeding due to the escape of blood from a blood vessel.
HEREDITARY - Transmissible from parent to offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cell.
HEREDITY - The transmission of characters from parent to offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cells. Genealogy.
HERNIATED INTERVERTBRAL DISC (HID) - Extrusion of part of the nucleus pulposus material through a defect in the annulus fibrosus. Otpouching of a disc.
HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS (HNP) - Extrusion of the central portion of an intervertebral disc through the outer cartilaginous ring. The material can compress the spinal cord or nerves in or exiting the spinal canal.
HERNIATION - Formation of a protrusion.
HETEROTOPIC BONE FORMATION - The occurrence of bone growth in an abnormal location.
HIBBS SPINAL FUSION - A lumbar spinal fusion that includes fusing the spinous process, lamina, and facet for stabilization.
HODGSON - Anterior approach to C-1 and C-2 area for drainage of tuberculosis abscess.
HOOK - For spinal applications, a metallic medical device used to connect spinal structures to a rod.
HORMONE - A chemical substance formed in one gland or part of the body and carried by the blood to another organ which it stimulates to functional activity.
HUMERUS - The bone of the arm, articulating with the scapula above and the radius and ulna below.
HYDROCEPHALUS - A condition, often congenital, marked by abnormal and excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles. This dilates the ventricles and in infants and young children causes the head to enlarge.
HYDROMYELIA - Expansion of the spinal cord due to increased size of the central canal of the cord which is filled with CSF.
HYDROXYAPATITE (HA) - The lattice-like structure of bone composed of calcium and phosphorous crystals which deposits on collagen to provide the rigid structure of bone.
HYOID BONE - Small, vertically oriented bones lateral to trachea, located at the level of C-3.
HYPER - Excessive, above normal.
HYPERACUSIS - Abnormal acuteness of hearing or auditory sensation.
HYPERESTHESIA - Excessive sensibility to touch, pain or other stimuli.
HYPEREXTENSION - Extension of a limb or part beyond the normal limit.
HYPERFLEXION - Flexion of a limb or part beyond the normal limit.
HYPERLORDOSIS - Increase in the normal anterior concavity of the cervical or lumbar spine.
HYPERTENSION - High blood pressure.
HYPOPHYSECTOMY - Excision of the hypophysis cerebri.
HYPOPHYSIS CEREBRI - A gland of internal secretion lying on the upper surface of the sphenoid (wedge shaped) bone.
HYPOTHALAMUS - A collection of specialized nerve cells at the base of the brain which controls the anterior and posterior pituitary secretions, and is involved in other basic regulatory functions such as temperature control and attention.


IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS - Structural lateral curvature of an unknown cause.
ILIAC BONE - A part of the pelvic bone that is above the hip joint and from which autogenous bone grafts are frequently obtained.
ILIAC CREST - The large, prominent portion of the pelvic bone at the belt line of the body.
ILIOPSOAS MUSCLE - Large muscles starting at L-1 and becoming wider as it picks up segments from the lower lumbar spine; combines with the iliacus muscle before attaching to the lesser trochanter of the hip.
IMMOBILIZATION - Limitation of motion or fixation of a body part usually to promote healing.
INFANTILE SCOLIOSIS - Lateral curvature of the spine that begins before age 3.
INFRATENTORIAL - Beneath the tentorium.
INFUNDIBULUM - A stalk extending from the base of the brain to the pituitary gland.
INSTRUMENTATION - the use of instruments such as metal screws or braces during a surgical procedure to support bone as it heals.
INTERBODY - between the bodies of two adjacent vertebrae
INTERCOSTALS - The muscles between the ribs.
INTERNAL FIXATION - The immobilization of bone fragments or joints with implants in order to promote healing or fusion.
INTERSPINOUS LIGAMENT - Ligament between each of the spinous processes.
INTERSPINOUS PSEUDARTHROSIS - Formation of a false joint between two spinous processes.
INTERVERTEBRAL DISC - See Disc (Intervertebral).
INTERVERTEBRAL DISC NARROWING - Narrowing of the space between any two vertebral bodies.
INTRA-AORTIC BALLOON COUNTER PULSATION DEVICE - A pump which is inserted into the main vessel of the body, the aorta, to help the heart deliver blood to critical organs such as the brain or kidneys.
INTRACEREBELLAR - Within the cerebellum.
INTRA-ARTERIAL CATHETERIZATION ANGIOGRAPHY - An invasive study in which a catheter (a small tube) is placed in the artery and contrast material is injected to which makes the blood vessels visible on an X-Ray image. The catheter is inserted in the groin into the femoral artery (the artery to the leg) through a needle, and is guided into the arteries in the neck and head. This study is associated with a very small (less than 0.05 % chance of serious complications) and requires the patient to lie in bed for approximately six hours to allow the leg vessel to heal.
INTRACEREBRAL - Within the cerebrum.
INTRACEREBRAL HEMATOMA - A blood clot within the brain.
INTRACRANIAL - Within the cranium of the skull.
INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE (ICP) - The overall pressure inside the skull.
INTRAOPERATIVE CISTERNOGRAPHY - Administration of a contrast dye into the ventricles which are chambers in the brain that contain b